Penrose is famous for having several books, filling patterns ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penrose_tiling ) and also for working with Stephen Hawking.
The other two I don’t know.
Once, Hawking said he would never win the Nobel, because black holes are difficult to identify and to prove anything about.
The recent discoveries and photos on black holes helped to confirm some of the theories.
If Hawking were alive, he would certainly be one of the laureates. To find out about Hawking’s life, there is the film “The theory of everything”.
Hawking also wrote several books. Among them, a very cool, didactic one, called “Black holes” (see https://amzn.to/3ljrNte ).
The amazing thing is that Hawking had to write letter by letter. He manipulated a kind of mouse with his tongue, the only part of his body that he could control. Still, his books are very good, and even humorous. The guy deserved a Nobel for that.