This article is an answer to the puzzle 3 of Quanta magazine.
Question: Is perfect randomness possible?
A simple explanation of the question. Current physics believes that quantum phenomena are random. The model works, no doubts about it. However, is this randomness just because we do not know the actual physical mechanism (position advocated by Albert Einstein) or because the universe is really random (position advocated by Niels Bohr)?
My answer below.
Disclaimer: some of this text has some fundament, but most of it is just imagination and fun.
A Bizarre world
The Schrödinger wave equation has two solutions, analogous as the square root of 4 can be 2 or -2.
For each electron, there may be an anti-electron. This theory was originally conceived by the English physicist Paul Dirac, in 1928.
The anti-electron is called “positron”.
A proton can have an anti-particle equivalent, the anti-proton. This was confirmed for the first time in 1955, by the physicist Emilio Segrè, from Berkeley University, California.
From then on, these theories opened the gates to the anti-particles. By symmetry, why not say that each particle has an equivalent anti-particle?
If protons and electrons form atoms, the anti-particles would form anti-atoms, and the anti-atoms form anti-moleculae, where some of them could become anti-DNA, forming anti-life, and who knows, anti-humans in this anti-universe.
Also, Richard Feynman Diagrams show that a positron can walk back in time! In addition to the opposite charge, time is opposite as well.
So we can think on a parallel universe, which I will call here the “Bizarre universe” (named after the Superman comic character). It would be a universe exactly like ours, but moving backwards in time, and made up entirely from anti-particles.
Or was their universe the real one, and ours the anti-universe?
But here is key to answer the question of probabilities. This anti-universe must be synchronized with our universe. Everything that is done here affects the counterpart there, and vice versa.
When a photon is faced with a decision, such as which slit to pass in the double-slit experiment, our photon may be tempted to pass one slit, and the anti-photon may decide to go through another slit — both disturbing each other and creating an interference pattern. Or not, both photon and anti-photon pass through the same slit from time to time.
If a photon goes through polarizing filter, it is the same idea. The angle of the filter directly affects the probability. Sometimes the photon will be benefited from the smaller angle, and it will pass, but at other times the anti-photon from the Bizarre universe will win the tug of war, and the photon will be blocked.
Therefore, the origin of probabilities is the conflict between particles and anti-particles having opposite goals, in parallel but complementary universes. No one knows who will win the contest, so the real randomness exists, and Bohr is right!